Ex Manicomio di Volterra (PI) – Ospedale Psichiatrico Ferri
L’Ospedale psichiatrico di Volterra ebbe origine nel 1888 nella costituzione di una sezione per “dementi” all’interno del ricovero di mendicità dell’ex convento di San Girolamo.
Con R.D. 5 giugno 1902 nacque il Frenocomio S. Girolamo e nei decenni successivi l’istituzione conobbe un notevolissimo sviluppo, ampliandosi progressivamente con officine, servizi e con una vera e propria azienda agraria, diventando uno dei manicomi più grandi d’Italia, specie dopo la costituzione di una sezione giudiziaria. Dal 1933 l’Ospedale passò sotto la Congregazione di carità; nel 1963 fu costituito il Consorzio per la sua gestione fra le province di Pisa e di Livorno. Nel 1978 divenne presidio ospedaliero dell’Unità sanitaria locale n. 15 di Volterra.
L’Ospedale Psichiatrico di Volterra, dopo la sua chiusura, è diventato “famoso” per i graffiti di Nannetti Oreste Fernando, 180 metri di muro esterno in cui NOF4, come lui stesso si firmava, ha inciso nei lunghi anni di degenza un’opera enciclopedica di sentimenti.
Parole, poesie, disegni scavati nella pietra gialla con la fibbietta del gilet della divisa dei matti reclusi.
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(by Nicola Gronchi)
The psychiatric hospital in Volterra was founded in 1888 by building a section for “demented” in the workhouse of the former convent of San Girolamo.
In 1902 it started as “Frenocomio San Girolamo” and in the following decades the establishment enjoyed a remarkable growth, expanding progressively with shops, services, and with a real farm, becoming one of the largest mental hospitals in Italy, especially after the establishment of a judicial section.
In the fifties and sixties it saw a huge development as to be considered, untill the famous Basaglia Act of 1978, one of the largest mental hospitals in Italy with over 100 000 cubic meters of volume.
Until 1975, when the Act 180 brought an end to the existence of mental hospitals, “going to Volterra” often means ending at the psychiatric hospital Ferri.
This structure was composed of three main buildings in which 6,000 people could find shelter at the same time, with fewer than 20 sinks and 2 wc every 200 patients: a true hell on earth, in which one could be confined at the early symptoms of depression, of suspected schizophrenia or for political or moral claims.
All for a treatment using electric shocks, insulin induced comas and a checklist of all poison pills and administered to “test” the results ignoring the often irreversible consequences on the patients selected for this treatment.
From the Procedure Rules: “The nurses cannot keep relations with the families of the patients, give them news about them, take out letters, articles, messages, greetings, and cannot bear the patient any news from outside, or objects, or prints,or written …”
10% died from beatings magnetic-cathode
40% for transmitted diseases
50% for hate, lack of love and affection
The Psychiatric Hospital of Volterra, after its closure, has become sadly “famous” for the graffiti of Oreste Fernando Nannetti, 180 meters of the outer wall where NOF4, as he signed himself, had carved, during the many years of his permanence there, a ‘ encyclopedia of feelings, biographies and crimes suffered and witnessed.
Words, poems, drawings carved into the yellow stone with the buckle of the uniform jacket of the mad inmates.
Finally, the Psychiatric Hospital of Volterra has inspired the singer Simone Cristicchi for the song “Ti regalerò una rosa”, an imaginary letter from Antonio, locked in a mental hospital since he was a child.
This is meant to be a witness and a raw food for thought to give more significance to the efforts of Franco Basaglia, an italian psychiatrist and neurologist , who fought with all his forces to close, in 1978, these authorized Konzentrationslager